There are other methods of extraction that draw out more polyphenols, but they are rather harsh on the wine. One method is to heat the grapes before they are crushed (thermovinification), which can impart a cooked aroma and flavor to the wine. This method is used for inexpensive wines.
Another method uses rotofermenters, or rotating tanks that keep the marc constantly mixing with the must. This valuable tool can sometimes be overused, producing awkward, over-extracted and out-of-balance wines.
Winemakers in Port use autovinifiers, that rely on the pressure of the CO2 generated by the fermentation to draw wine up a pipe, which is then sprayed over the pomace when the tank reaches a certain fill level.
The vessel used for fermentation is just as important for red wines as it is for white wines. Wooden vessels of different sizes are used quite often. The alternatives are the same as for white wines: temperature controlled stainless or concrete.
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