There are several procedures that can be used in bottling. In the first, wine is bottled unfiltered and unfined. This is an option for winemakers that have been very deliberate throughout the winemaking process. As long as the wine has been fermented to dryness and has been allowed to settle before being racked, it is possible to bottle without fining and/or filtration. If any of these conditions have not been met, spoilage may occur.
Another option is to bottle the wine after cold sterile filtration, which involves an absolute or membrane filtration through pores small enough to exclude yeast and bacteria. To accomplish this successfully, the bottling machines must be sterilized.
A third option is called hot bottling. This process involves heating the wine to 54°C, bottling it and allowing it to cool at room temperature. Hot bottling eliminates bacteria and yeast without pasteurization and alleviates the need for sterile conditions.
Pasteurization can also be done at the time of bottling. One way is tunnel pasteurization in which the wine is bottled and then heated to 82°C for fifteen minutes. Flash pasteurization uses higher temperatures but shorter time.
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